Tonality: Scales & Chords
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|This lesson is part of the Fundamentals of Sound & Music module.|
- Students will understand the fundamental concepts of tonality and scales, including terminology like “pentatonic” and “heptatonic.”
- Student will learn the distinction between different scale types (number of notes, steps/semitones)
- Students will be familiar with concepts of dissonance and consonance in regards to harmony, and with common harmonic terminology such as tertial, quartal, triad and tetrad.
- Student will be able to identify scale notes for any melody
- Student will be able to surmise a tonic for simple tonal melodies
- Student will comprehend the difference between tonal and non-tonal (or atonal) music
- Optional: Student will learn about basic tonal structures in various non-Western cultures (focus: Indian raga, gamelan patet, Arabic maqam)
- "What is tonality?" (The Tonal Centre).
- "Collections and Scales." (Open Music Theory).
- M. McFerron. "Tonal Music." (Big Composer).
- "Five Notes Will Change Your Life: The Pentatonic Scale." (Musical U).
- Piano Scales.Org:
- Sadhana, Demystifying Hindustani Classical Music: "What is a Raga?"
- Sumarsam, Introduction to Javanese Gamelan: "Tuning System" (pp. 3-6)
- MaqamWorld, "The Arabic Maqam"
- Wikipedia: Arabic Maqam
- Sadhana, Demystifying Hindustani Classical Music
- Shumays, Maqamlessons.com
- Shumays, "Maqam Analysis: A Primer." (Music Theory Spectrum 35.2: 235-255)
- The Tonal Centre
Videos & Listening
- "B. McFerrin demonstrates the power of the pentatonic scale." (World Science Festival Youtube).
- Illustration of different popular maqams
- Discussion and demonstration of the concepts of tonality and tonal centers
- Discussion and demonstration of scale subsets within a particular tuning system
- Discussion and demonstration of different sizes and types of chords
- Scalar analysis of different melodies
- Analysis of a piece of music for tonic, scale
- Analysis of chords (presented aurally or in protonotation)